ARCH0160 Fall16 S01 Buried History, Hidden Wonders: Discovering East Asian Archaeology
Instructor: Dr. Katherine Brunson
Office Hours: Fridays 1:00-3:00pm, Rhode Island Hall Room 102
Download the syllabus here: East_Asia_Syllabus_2016_Brunson_v4.docx
Fall 2016 Syllabus:
Buried History, Hidden Wonders: Discovering East Asian Archaeology
What do Peking Man, human sacrifice, buried armies, lost cities, and silk routes have to do with one another? All are part of the rich and varied legacy of East Asian archaeology, which is today being re-written by spectacular new discoveries little known to the West. Beginning with Asia’s earliest hominin inhabitants, this course will explore the origins of agriculture, early villages and cities, ancient writing systems, and changes in ritual practice through time. We will also discuss the current state of archaeological research in Asia, focusing on site preservation and the political roles of archaeology.
Course Learning Goals:
- Evaluate competing theories for human evolution in East Asia. Compare the East Asian Paleolithic record with what is found in other regions of the Old World.
- Examine the archaeological record at sites during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Learn about sites with early evidence for pottery production, sedentism, plant cultivation, and animal management.
- Learn how archaeologists document the origins of plant and animal domestication in East Asia.
- Compare Neolithic material culture and subsistence systems across regions. Discuss regional similarities and differences in terms of the emergence of social inequality, craft specialization, and urbanism.
- Understand the development of early Chinese Bronze Age societies. Discuss the origins of writing, bronze production, and royal ritual practice.
- Examine evidence for trade and long distance exchange across East Asia in different time periods and social contexts.
- Discuss how archaeology is practiced in different countries in East Asia and how archaeology factors into tourism, the antiquities trade, and nationalism.
Course Requirements and Grading:
Participation/response posts/quizzes 25%
Site report 20%
Site presentation 5%
Midterm exam 20%
Final exam 30%
Lectures and Discussion: Classes held on Mondays and Wednesdays will be lecture-based. Fridays will be reserved for discussion of assigned readings, museum visits, student presentations, and other activities.
Participation, Response Posts, and Quizzes: Students should attend all classes and participate in discussions. Required readings should be completed before Friday discussions. Students are also responsible for posting a short 1-2 paragraph response to the readings on the course website each week. Responses are due by 2am the night before discussion. These assignments will be graded as complete/incomplete, with full marks given for a thoughtful response submitted on time. Out of eleven total response posts, only ten will count toward the final grade (i.e., one assignment can be dropped). Additionally, there will be two short in-class quizzes that will count toward the participation grade.
Site Report: Students will be assigned an archaeological site to research. Each student will produce a 2-3 page single spaced (approximately1500 word) report on their site that covers the following:
- Site name, location, date, and archaeological culture/horizon.
- Summary of the original archaeological site report. Site reports can be borrowed from the instructor. Most reports have English abstracts, and students are not expected to be able to read Chinese, Korean, or Japanese. Instead, please comment on what you can observe about the structure and organization of the report. What are the key findings (structures, burials, artifacts, etc.)?
- Summary of at least three additional scholarly journal articles or book chapters that have been written about the site (including full citations). What types of scientific analyses have been done (e.g., isotopic studies, lithic analyses, etc.)? Are there other nearby or contemporaneous sites that have been compared/contrasted with your site?
- The significance of the site in East Asian archaeology and its relationship to key themes discussed in class. For example, how has research at the site changed or reinforced our understanding of the archaeological record in the region? How has the site been cited or used in other academic discussions of issues such as domestication, urbanism, social hierarchy, etc.? Are there challenges to the preservation of the site? What is the public perception of the site? What controversies surround the interpretation of the site?
Grades on the report will be based on how well the student is able to conduct independent research, contextualize their site, and explain its significance in relation to themes explored in class. Reports can be turned in any time before the end of the semester (December 12), but enough research must be completed before the date of the in-class presentation to provide a thorough summary to the class.
Site Presentation: Students will give a 5-10 minute presentation on their assigned site during one of the Friday discussion sessions. Presentations should summarize the written site report (see above) and also include a Google Earth image showing the location of the site. After the presentations, students will share Google Earth kmz files with the rest of the class.
Midterm, and Final Exam: Exams will cover materials from the lectures, discussions, and readings. Exams will include multiple choice questions, short answer questions, and short essays.
Estimated Time Allocation: Class meetings (36 hours); readings (4-5 hours per week, 56-70 hours total); response posts (2 hour per week, 22 hours total); site report (20 hours); studying for quizzes (4 hours); studying for midterm (10 hours); studying for final (15 hours); midterm (1 hour); final (3 hours).
Accommodation for Students with Disabilities: Any student with a documented disability is welcome to contact me as early in the semester as possible to arrange reasonable accommodations. As part of this process, please be in touch with Student and Employee Accessibility Services (SEAS).
Readings: All readings will be available as PDFs on the course website. Additionally, the following books will be on hold in the library for reference:
- Barnes, G. L. (2015). Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilization in China, Korea and Japan. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012). The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Underhill, A. (2013). A Companion to Chinese Archaeology. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Wednesday, September 7
Introduction to the Course: Beyond the Terracotta Warriors
Friday, September 9
Environment, Geography, and Chronology
- Barnes, G. L. (2015).Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilization in China, Korea and Japan. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Chapter 1.
- Elvin, M. (2004). The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China. New Haven: Yale University Press. Pp. 9-39.
Monday, September 12
Paleolithic Part I: East Asia’s Earliest Inhabitants
Wednesday, September 14
Paleolithic Part II: Debates over the Emergence of Modern Humans
Friday September 16
Discussion of East Asia’s Paleolithic Record and New Genetic Evidence. Examine Fossil Casts.
- Shelach-Lavi, G. (2015). The Archaeology of Early China: From Prehistory to the Han Dynasty. New York: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2.
- Bar-Yosef, O. and Wang, Y. (2012). Paleolithic Archaeology in China. Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 319-335.
- Read at least one of the supplemental readings on ancient DNA.
- Reich, D. et al. (2011). Denisova Admixture and the First Modern Human Dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. The American Journal of Human Genetics 89: 516-528.
- Fu, Q., et al. (2013). DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (6): 2223-2227.
- Huerta-Sánchez, E., et al. (2014). Altitude Adaptation in Tibetans Caused by Introgression of Denisovan-like DNA.Nature 512 (7513): 194-197.
Monday, September 19
The Upper Paleolithic and Hunter-Gatherers on the Margins
Wednesday, September 21
QUIZ #1 (MAP QUIZ). Pottery and Sedentism in the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition
Friday, September 23
Discussion of Archaeological Innovations during the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition
- Bellwood, P. (2013). First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective (pp. 71-83). John Wiley and Sons.
- Madsen, D. B. (2016). Conceptualizing the Tibetan Plateau: Environmental Constraints on the Peopling of the “Third Pole”.Archaeological Research in Asia 5: 24-32.
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012).The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 3.
- Liu, W. et al. (2015). The Earliest Unequivocally Modern Humans in Southern China. Nature 526: 696-699.
- Wu, X., et al. (2012). Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China. Science 336(6089):1696-1700.
- Boaretto, E., et al. (2009). Radiocarbon Dating of Charcoal and Bone Collagen Associated with Early Pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China. PNAS106: 9595-9600.
- Brantingham, P. J. et al. (2013). Late Occupation of the High-Elevation Northern Tibetan Plateau Based on Cosmogenic, Luminescence, and Radiocarbon Ages. Geoarchaeology 28: 413-431.
Monday, September 26
Wednesday, September 28
Friday, September 30
Discussion of Plant and Animal Domestication in East Asia
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012).The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 4.
- Hayden, B. (2003). Were Luxury Foods the First Domesticates? Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives from Southeast Asia.World Archaeology 34(3): 458-469.
- Barton, L. et al. (2009). Agricultural Origins and the Isotopic Identity of Domestication in North China. PNAS 106 (14): 5523-5528.
- Zhao, Z. (2011). New Archaeobotanic Data for the Study of the Origins of Agriculture in China.Current Anthropology 52(S4): S295-S306.
- Yang, X., et al. (2012). Early Millet Use in Northern China.PNAS 109(10): 3726-3730.
- Gross, B. L., & Zhao, Z. (2014). Archaeological and Genetic Insights into the Origins of Domesticated Rice.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(17): 6190-6197.
- Yuan, J., & Flad, R. K. (2002). Pig Domestication in Ancient China.Antiquity 76(293): 724-732.
Monday, October 3
Early Neolithic Sites in the Northeast and Japan. Model of a Site Report Presentation.
Wednesday, October 5
Early Neolithic Sites in Northern and Southern China. The Spread of Farming into the Pacific.
Friday, October 7
Discussion of Early Neolithic Sites. Student Presentations.
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012).The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 5.
- Cohen, D. J. (2011). The Beginnings of Agriculture in China.Current Anthropology 52(S4): S273-S293.
- Bellwood, P. (2013). First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective (pp. 178-209). John Wiley and Sons.
- Barnes, G. L. (2015).Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilization in China, Korea and Japan. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Chapter 5.
- Zong, Y. et al. (2007). Fire and Flood Management of Coastal Swamp Enabled First Rice Paddy Cultivation in East China.Nature 449(7161): 459-462.
- Zhang, J. et al. (1999). Oldest Playable Musical Instruments found at Jiahu Early Neolithic Site in China.Nature 401(6751): 366-368.
- Ko, A. M. et al. (2014). Early Austronesians: Into and Out of Taiwan. The American Journal of Human Genetics 94: 426-436.
Monday, October 10
HOLIDAY, NO CLASS MEETING
Wednesday, October 12
Middle Neolithic Sites in the Northeast
Friday, October 14
Discussion of Middle Neolithic Sites in the Northeast and Gender in Archaeology. Student Presentations.
- Selections from: Nelson, S. M. (2015). Shamans, Queens, and Figurines: The Development of Gender Archaeology. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.
- Shelach, G. (2004). Marxist and Post-Marxist Paradigms for the Neolithic. In K.M. Linduff and Y. Sun (eds.), Gender in Chinese Archaeology (pp. 11-27). Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.
- Nelson, S. M. (1998). Pigs in the Hongshan Culture. In S.M. Nelson (Ed.) Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs in Prehistory (pp. 99-107). MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology 15.
- Peterson, C. R., and Lu, X. (2013). Understanding Hongshan Period Social Dynamics. In A.P. Underhill (ed.), A Companion to Chinese Archaeology (pp. 55-80). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Barnes, G. L. (2015).Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilization in China, Korea and Japan. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Chapter 6.
Monday, October 17
Middle Neolithic Sites in the Central Plains Region.
Wednesday, October 19
Middle Neolithic Sites on the Coast and the Yangzi River Region.
Friday, October 21
Discussion of Middle Neolithic Sites and Feasting. Student Presentations.
- Peterson, C. E., & Shelach, G. (2010). The Evolution of Yangshao Period Village Organization in the Middle Reaches of Northern China’s Yellow River Valley. In M. S. Bandy and J.R. Fox (eds.), Becoming Villagers: Comparing Early Village Societies (pp. 246-275). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
- Wang, J. et al. (2016). Revealing a 5,000-y-old Beer Recipe in China.PNAS 113(23): 6444-6448.
- Fung, C. (2000). The Drinks are on Us: Ritual, Social Status, and Practice in Dawenkou Burials, North China. Journal of East Asian Archaeology 2 (1-2): 67-92.
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012).The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 6.
- Nelson, S.M. (2003). Feasting the Ancestors in Early China. In T.L. Bray (ed.) The Archaeology of Politics of Food and Feasting in Early States and Empires (pp. 65-89). New York: Klewer/Plenum.
Monday, October 24
Late Neolithic Complex Societies in the South.
Wednesday, October 26
Late Neolithic Complex Societies in the North.
Friday October 28
Discussion of Late Neolithic China and Craft Production. Student Presentations. Exam Review.
- Demattè, P. (2006). The Chinese Jade Age Between Antiquarianism and Archaeology.Journal of Social Archaeology 6(2): 202-226.
- Liu, L. (2003). “The Products of Minds as Well as of Hands”: Production of Prestige Goods in the Neolithic and Early State Periods of China.Asian Perspectives 42(1): 1-40.
- Liu, L., Zhai, S., & Chen, X. (2013). Production of Ground Stone Tools at Taosi and Huizui: A Comparison. In A.P. Underhill (ed.), A Companion to Chinese Archaeology (pp. 278-299). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012).The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 7.
Monday, October 31
Wednesday, November 2
Erlitou and Bronze Age Cultures on the Northern Frontiers.
Friday, November 4
Discussion of Early Urbanism and State Societies in Ancient China.
- Falkenhausen, L. von (2008). Stages in the Development of “Cities” in Pre-Imperial China. In: J. Marcus & J.A. Sabloff (eds.), The Ancient City: New Perspectives on Urbanism in the Old and New World. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press. Pp. 209-228.
- Liu, L., & Xu, H. (2007). Rethinking Erlitou: Legend, History and Chinese Archaeology.Antiquity, 81(314): 886-901.
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012).The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 8-9.
- Shelach, G., & Jaffe, Y. (2014). The Earliest States in China: A Long-Term Trajectory Approach.Journal of Archaeological Research 22(4): 327-364.
- Jaang, L. (2015). The Landscape of China’s Participation in the Bronze Age Eurasian Network.Journal of World Prehistory 28(3): 179-213.
Monday, November 7
The Erligang and Late Shang Periods.
Wednesday, November 9
No lecture. Visit to RISD Museum at 2pm.
Friday, November 11
Late Shang Burials, Rituals, and Writing at Anyang. Discussion of Shang Period Bronze Production and Social Organization.
- Ledderose, L., & Bollingen Foundation. (2000).Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese art (pp. 25-49). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Jing, Z. et al. (2013). Recent Discoveries and Some Thoughts on Early Urbanism at Anyang. In A.P. Underhill (ed.) A Companion to Chinese Archaeology (pp. 343-366). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Bagley, R. (1999). Shang Archaeology. In M. Loewe and E.L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. (pp. 124-231). New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 136-157.
- Keightley, D. N. (1999). The Shang: China’s First Historical Dynasty. In M. Loewe and E.L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. (pp. 232-291). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Monday, November 14
Guest Lecture by Paola Demattè. Writing in Ancient China.
Wednesday, November 16
Friday, November 18
QUIZ #2. Discussion of the Late Shang. Oracle Bone Demonstration.
- Demattè, P. (2010). The Origins of Chinese Writing: The Neolithic Evidence. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 20(02): 211-228.
- Keightley, D. N. (1996). Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China. Representations 56: 68-95.
- Flad, R. K. (2008). Divination and Power.Current Anthropology 49(3): 403-437.
- Flad, R. K. (2012). Bronze, Jade, Gold, and Ivory: Valuable Objects in Ancient Sichuan. In J.K. Papadopoulos and G. Urton (eds.), The Construction of Value in the Ancient World (pp. 306-335). Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press.
- Yuan, J., & Flad, R. K. (2005). New Zooarchaeological Evidence for Changes in Shang Dynasty Animal Sacrifice.Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 24(3): 252-270.
- Liu, L., & Chen, X. (2012).The Archaeology of China: From the Late Palaeolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 10.
Monday, November 21
Zhou Period Archaeology
Wednesday, November 23 and Friday, November 25
HOLIDAY, NO CLASS MEETING
- Barnes, G. L. (2015).Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilization in China, Korea and Japan. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Chapter 10.
Monday, November 28
Momun and Yayoi
Wednesday, November 30
Discuss Archaeology in Practice, National Heritage, and the Role of Archaeology in the Modern World.
Friday, December 2
Attend Anthropology Department Lecture by Rowan Flad.
- Barnes, G. L. (2015).Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilization in China, Korea and Japan. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Chapter 2, Chapter 11, and Chapter 16.
- Read at least one of the supplemental readings.
- Fiskejo, M. & Chen X. (2004). The Chinese Fate of Johan Gunnar Andersson: From Scholar to Scholar. In China Before China: Johan Gunnar Andersson, Ding Wenjiang, and the Discovery of China’s Prehistory. Stockholm, Sweden: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities. Pp. 104-125.
- Murowchick, R. E. (2013). “Despoiled the Garments of Her Civilization:” Problems and Progress in Archaeological Heritage Management in China. In A.P. Underhill (ed.), A Companion to Chinese Archaeology (pp.13-34). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Pai, HlIl (2015). Gateway to Korea: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Reconstructing Ruins as Tourist Landmarks. Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology 35: 15-25.
- Habu, J., & Fawcett, C. (2008). Science or Narratives? Multiple Interpretations of the Sannai Maruyama Site, Japan. InEvaluating Multiple Narratives (pp. 91-117). Springer New York.
Monday, December 5
Qin and Post-Qin Periods: Silk Roads and Empires
Wednesday, December 7
- Barnes, G. L. (2015).Archaeology of East Asia: The Rise of Civilization in China, Korea and Japan. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Chapter 12.
Extended office hours: Friday, December 9 12:00-3:00pm and Monday, December 12 12:00-3:00pm
FINAL EXAM: 9:00am Thursday, December 15 (Exam Group 12)
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